Research Paper

You will write a research paper, worth 150 points, over one of the major theories of ethics, either deontology or utilitarianism, and evaluate the strengths and weaknesses. The paper must be a minimum of 8 pages, not including Works Cited. APA style citations and a reference list must be used and provided. You must reference 3 citations – this includes the Shaw/Berry text and 2 outside reliable sources. Professional writing with correct spelling, punctuation, and grammar is expected. Your writing must develop your chosen topic and provide solid examples from readings, research, or your own experiences for support.

Prior to beginning the research paper, you will submit a Research Paper Outline, worth 20 points and a minimum of 1 page in length. The outline must be written in correct topic form to include title and thesis statement with major arguments indicated by Roman numerals and support for major arguments indicated by capital Arabic numerals. The format should be double-spaced, 12-point sans serif font, with 1-inch margins, and should be saved as .doc, .pdf, or .rtf file format. Professional writing with correct research paper outline format, spelling, punctuation, and grammar is expected. The Research Paper Outline is due by Sunday at 11:59 pm CT of Week 4.

You will submit a Research Paper Draft, worth 70 points and a minimum of 4 pages in length. The rough draft should include an introduction, body, and a conclusion. There should be a minimum of four sources cited to include the Shaw/Berry text and three outside sources. The draft is a standalone document and any corrections noted in the draft will be expected to be in the final research paper. This is due by Sunday at 11:59 pm CT of Week 6.

All papers must be your own original work, and you may not use papers used previously in another course, even if they are from a previous session of this course. The format should be double-spaced, 12-point sans serif font, with 1-inch margins. Your papers should be saved as .doc, .pdf, or .rtf file format.



Utilitarianism is a consequentialist and teleological ethical theory that focus on the principle of utility and emphasizes on maximizing consequences. In a simpler form, this theory can be stated as ensuring greatest good for the greatest number (Dimmock & Fisher, 2020). Based on happiness, utilitarianism is a hedonistic theory attributed to Jeremy Bentham who developed the Hedonic Calculus as a way to determine the rightness or wrongness of an action.  Moreover, John Stewart Mill further stated various distinct qualities of pleasure through the argument that some pleasures are higher than others thus developing Bentham’s theory further. For instance, intellectual pleasures such as reading is greater than pleasures enjoyed by animals such as sleeping and eating. Guided by his positive view of human nature, Mill believed that the happiness of everyone could and should be everyone’s aim thus justifying the greatest number (Shaw & Barry, 2016). As a result, two types of utilitarianism were formed due to distinct thoughts from Bentham and Mill. The two types are act utilitarianism which is based on determining the actions that are moral and rule utilitarianism emphasizing that rules should be established from general principles. On the face of it, utilitarianism seems like a sensible moral theory but similar any other theory it has its strengths and weaknesses. This paper will argue that the weaknesses of utilitarianism outweigh the strengths, thus despite the initial appeal there are controversies with utilitarianism that makes it a problematic moral theory. 

Considering the strengths of the theory, first it is easier to reach a conclusion through utilitarianism than other theories. For instance, besides been applicable in many situations, it is fairly sophisticated to use hedonic calculus as a way to calculate happiness. Moreover, according to Eggleston (2020), Mill’s thought on this theory separates lower and higher pleasures and through prioritizing certain things it becomes easier to make ethical decisions under utilitarianism. Higher pleasures of intellect should be prioritized more than lower pleasures such as those animals enjoy thus giving humans moral authority over animals …………for help with this assignment contact us via Email Address: consulttutor10@gmail.com

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