Opioids Use


Describe the history of opium and characterize the four broad categories of opioid drugs. Examine the effects opiates have on the mind and body, patterns of abuse, tolerance, and lethality.


Drugs, Society, and Criminal Justice
Charles F. Levinthal, 2015

ISBN.13: 978-0-133-80258-0


Opioids Use 

The earliest reference to opium growth dates back to 3400 B.C when the poppy was cultivated in Southwest Asia, Mesopotamia. The Sumerians, who referred to the plant as a “joy plant,” introduced it to the Assyrians, who passed it on to Egyptians, where people began to learn more about it, particularly its power (Kerrigan & Goldberger, 2020).  With the demand increasing, many plants started to grow and process opium to reduce the cost and increase its availability (Levinthal, 2015). Eventually, its cultivation from the Mediterranean to China through the Silk Road where it led to Opium Wars.

The four broad categories of opioids include opium alkaloids, semi-synthetic opioids, fully synthetic opioids, and endogenous opioid peptides (Kerrigan & Goldberger, 2020). At first, opium alkaloids are chemical compounds that occur in poppy seeds and include morphine, thebaine, and codeine. These common natural opiates are the most pharmacologically active. Semi-synthetic is another category of opiates that are produced in the lab from natural opiates. They include oxycodone, hydrocodone, hydromorphone, and heroin created from morphine (Levinthal, 2015). Also, there are fully synthetic opioids such as tramadol, methadone, and pethidine that are completely manmade……………for help with this assignment contact us via email Address: consulttutor10@gmail.com

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